Adult breastfeeding cams
We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers’ mental health during pregnancy.
Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to.].
The instrument consists of 10 questions, each with four possible answers describing symptoms of increasing severity or duration; aggregate scores on the EPDS range from 0 to 30.
The authors of the EPDS have suggested that women should be referred to a mental health specialist if they score 13 or higher during the post-partum period [12 in postpartum assessments.
After conducting this analysis for the whole sample, we split the sample into mothers who were, and who were not, depressed during pregnancy; for each group, we examine differences in outcomes between women who had planned to breastfeed, and women who had not.80 % of mothers in this sample initiated breastfeeding and 74 % breastfed for 1 week or more.
By 4 weeks only 56 % of mothers were breastfeeding at all and only 43 % were breastfeeding exclusively.
The percentages of women feeding for the different durations considered are shown in Table shows the raw relationships between postnatal depressive symptomatology, and (a) prenatal depression, and (b) different measures of breastfeeding duration.
A significant degree of correlation is present between postnatal and antenatal EPDS scores; a clear negative relationship also exists between symptoms of maternal depression measured at 8 weeks, and breastfeeding duration.
The relationship between breastfeeding and maternal mental health may be driven by biological factors, such as differences in hormone levels between breast- and formula-feeding mothers ; if maternal mental health is also affected by mothers’ feelings of success or failure in relation to their original plans and aspirations, we may expect the intention to breastfeed to play a crucial role.].As a measure of depression, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used.  to screen for PPD, was collected during pregnancy at 18 and 32 weeks’ gestation, and post-natally at 8 weeks, and 8, 18, and 33 months.The EPDS is the most frequently used screening questionnaire for PPD; the EPDS is sensitive to changes in depression over time, and has been demonstrated to be a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of both postpartum and antenatal depression .Details of all data collected in the ALSPAC survey are available on the study website through a fully searchable data dictionary .Our study obtained ethical approval from the ALSPAC Law and Ethics Committee and the Local Research Ethics Committees.